THE INFLUENCE OF SMARTPHONE USE ON SPINAL POSTURE

  • Smart phones have become increasingly more popular and complicated tasks can be performed with these devices. However, the increasing use is associated with shoulder and neck pain, as well as with psycho-logical addiction.
  • Over the last years smart phones have gotten increasingly popular, since they can perform complicated tasks such as internet access, social networking, and Smartphone applications.
  • According to the study currently 45.12 % of the world’s population has a smart-phone.
  • Smartphone users spend more than 20 h per week on texting, emailing, and using social networks, which represents a significant dependence on smart phones for connecting and communicating with others
  • The high use of smart phones has increase negative influences on safety and health, including mental and musculoskeletal health. In particular, using smart phones for daily tasks by a combination of internet use and mobile calls can lead to Smartphone addiction. The overuse of smartphone affects the upper extremity pain, anxiety, depression, and interpersonal relationships. They found that anxiety and depression were more common. Increased smartphone use can also lead to an increased non-neutral posture and sustained muscle loading. Increased smartphone use can lead to musculoskeletal pain, which can be found in 1–67.8 % of all smartphone users, with neck pain being the most prevalent.
  • The prevalence of Smartphone addiction is reported to be around 8.4–24.9 % in adolescents. Adults between the ages of 18–24 years use their smartphones for 980 call minutes and for 1200 text messages per month.
  • The human spine is linked in a kinematic chain of joints, meaning that changes in other body segments, such as increased head flexion during texting with a smartphone, can have significant effects on the whole spine. Smartphone use leads to a significant increase in the head flexion angle, and that this increase may depend on the respective smartphone task. An increased head flexion angle requires higher contraction forces of the neck extensor muscles in order to support the head in a more flexed position, which has been identified as a risk factor for head and neck pain.
  • Smartphones are a detrimental part of our daily lives, however overuse can be associated with physical and psychological problems. smartphone tasks lead to significant changes in the spinal posture such as increased thoracic kyphosis and trunk inclination during standing and while walking. It was demonstrated that smartphone use can also lead to significant changes in the lumbar lordosis and in the rotation of the spine, as measured by the surface rotation.